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Art that uses both ordered, audible sounds and quiet is called music. Normal ways of expressing it include using pitch (which includes melody and harmony), rhythm (which includes pace and metre), and the sound quality (which includes timbre, articulation, dynamics, and texture). Through the creation of patterns and combinations of natural stimuli, mostly sound, music can also encompass complex generative forms throughout time. Music can serve a variety of functions, including artistic or aesthetic, communicative, entertaining, and ceremonial ones. Music is defined differently depending on the culture and social setting.

Music can be thought of as an aural art form, just like painting can be.

Filippino Lippi’s Allegory of Music

Lorenzo Lippi’s Allegory of Music


definition one

History 2

3 elements

4 Production 4.1 Execution

4.2 Solo and group

4.3 Oral custom and representation

4.4 Composition, improvisation, and interpretation

Composition 4.5


[Edit] According to [http://www. FaceYourArt’s] definition .com]

Definition of music in the main

additionally: music genre

Organized sound is the broadest description of music. While there are reasonable cultural variances, there are obvious patterns to what is generally referred to as music. These patterns are the characteristics of sound as perceived and processed by both humans and animals (birds and insects also make music).

Sound is created or structured in music. Despite not being able to contain emotions, it occasionally has a purpose in manipulating and transforming the feelings of the listener or listeners. A wonderful example of how music is used to sway emotions is music composed for motion pictures.

Greek philosophers and mediaeval scholars defined music as a series of tones arranged vertically and horizontally to create harmonies. Within this field, music theory is researched with the assumption that music is regularly organised and enjoyable to hear. But in the 20th century, composers questioned the idea that music had to be uplifting by exploring harsher, sinister tones in their works. Even the crudest noises can be deemed music if the listener is so motivated, as evidenced by the presence of some contemporary genres like grindcore and noise music, which have large underground fan bases.

John Cage, a composer of the 20th century, disputed with the idea that music must have pleasing, audible melodies and he questioned the idea that it can convey any message. As opposed to this, he asserted that all noises we hear could be music, for instance, “There is no noise, only sound,”[3]. The line dividing music from noise is always culturally defined, which indicates that even within a single community, this line does not always pass through the same location; in other words, there is rarely agreement, according to musicologist Jean-Jacques Nattiez (1990, p.47-8, 55). According to all accounts, there isn’t a single, cross-cultural definition of what music is.

According to Johann Wolfgang Goethe, “architecture is frozen music,” patterns and forms are the foundation of music.

According to [] history .com]

Main article: Music history

see also: politics and music

Figures found in Susa during the third millennium BC playing stringed instruments. National Museum of Iran

The evolution of every distinct human civilization may be traced back to the history of music, which precedes the written word. Although the Sama Veda of India and 4,000-year-old cuneiform from Ur contain the earliest evidence of musical expression, the majority of our written records and research focus on the history of music in Western civilisation. This covers styles from the 20th century as well as music from the mediaeval, renaissance, baroque, classical, and romantic eras. There has also been some documentation of the history of music in other cultures, and “world music” (or the study of “ethnomusicology”) has grown in popularity among academics. In addition to the folk or indigenous music of several other civilizations, this also covers the known classical traditions of Asian nations beyond the influence of western Europe. (The phrase “world music” has been used to refer to a vast variety of music created outside of Europe and music influenced by Europe, but its original use was as a term encompassing all music genres, including European traditions, in the context of the Wesleyan University World Music Program. The term “ethnomusicology,” still viewed by some as an inadequate coinage, superseded the original term for the study of world music, “comparative musicology,” in academic circles in the middle of the 20th century.)

Popular musical genres vary greatly from culture to culture and era to era. Different instruments, techniques, and applications of music were emphasised by various cultures. Not only has music been used widely for propaganda, but also for rituals, practical & creative communication, and enjoyment.

Indigenous musical genres have frequently fused to create new genres as world civilizations have interacted more. Anglo-Irish, Scottish, Irish, German, and some African-American instrumental and vocal traditions, for instance, have aspects in the American bluegrass style that have been able to meld in the multiethnic “melting pot” society of the US.

There are many different categories for music, many of which are involved in the debate over what constitutes music. One of the most significant of these is that between popular music and classical music, or “art” music (or commercial music – including rock and roll, country music, and pop music). Certain genres don’t readily fit into any of these “main two” categories (such as folk music, world music, or jazz music).

Music genres are influenced by presentation and tradition just as much as by the music itself. While the majority of classical music is acoustic and intended for solo or ensemble performance, many “classical” works use samples, tape, or are mechanical. Jazz and classical music both claim ownership of certain compositions, as Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue. Nowadays, a specific musical genre is honoured at many music festivals.

What defines “genuine” music—late Beethoven string quartets, Stravinsky ballet scores, serialism, bebop-era compositions—is frequently contested. When they were originally presented, jazz, rap, punk rock, and electronica were all regarded by some reviewers as not being music.

Factors as observed by [http://www.FaceYourArt] .com]

Main article: Music-related aspects

The components given precedence in classical music with European influences are melody, harmony, rhythm, tone colour or timbre, and form. These are the conventional or classical European aspects of music that are frequently listed. By listing the characteristics of sound, including pitch, timbre, loudness, and duration, a more thorough list is provided. [1] Secondary features like structure, texture, and style are produced when these aspects are combined. The spatial positioning of sounds, gestures, and dancing, as well as their movement in space, are additional frequently mentioned features. The dramatic pauses in Romantic-era symphonies and the avant-garde use of silence as an aesthetic statement in 20th-century works like John Cage’s 4’33 have long been recognised as elements of music. John Cage believes that duration is the most important characteristic of music since it is the single element that both “sound” and “quiet” share in common.

As was already mentioned, not only do the components that make up music differ, but also their significance. For example, rhythm and timbre are frequently said to be neglected in classical music in favour of melody and harmony. Whether there are elements of music that are universal is a topic of much discussion. Definitions are a common point of contention. For instance, a broad definition of tonality is necessary to address the fairly widespread claim that “tonality” pervades all music.

The alap portion of Hindustani music is one example. Although a pulse is commonly assumed to be universal, there are solo vocal and instrumental genres with spontaneous, improvisational rhythms that lack a consistent pulse. “We must examine whether a cross-cultural musical universal is to be discovered in the music itself (either its form or function), or the way music is made,” says Dane Harwood. I don’t just mean the actual playing; I also mean how music is heard, comprehended, and even learned. [3]

[edit] Manufacturing

Article focus: The music business

Music is created and performed for a variety of reasons, including aesthetic enjoyment, ceremonial or religious objectives, or as a commercially produced form of entertainment. Amateur musicians don’t try to make a living off of their music; instead, they create and play it for their own enjoyment. Armed forces, churches and synagogues, symphony orchestras, television or film production firms, and music schools are just a few of the institutions and organisations that employ professional musicians. Professional musicians also pursue contracts and engagements as independent contractors in a range of contexts.

There are frequently many connections between amateur and professional musicians, despite the fact that amateur musicians are different from professional musicians in that they derive their money from sources other than music. Beginner amateur musicians study with seasoned performers. In a variety of ensembles and orchestras, advanced amateur musicians collaborate with professional musicians in communal settings. Rarely, amateur musicians develop the professional level of proficiency necessary to perform in venues for professionals.

Music that is played for a live audience and music that is performed to be recorded and transmitted through the music retail system or the broadcasting system are frequently distinguished from one another. A live performance in front of an audience, though, is frequently videotaped and distributed (or broadcast).

[edit] Execution

Article focus: Performance

Naxi Chinese musicians

A musician is someone who creates, performs, or conducts music. There are several reasons why musicians play their instruments. Some musicians use music to convey their emotions. Both amateur and professional musicians find performing music to be joyful, and they frequently perform for an audience that derives some aesthetic, social, religious, or ceremonial value from the performance. Professional musicians are driven in part by their financial ties to the music industry. In addition to being a source of revenue, music has integrated into daily life and culture. allowing one to be motivated by self- intrinsic reasons as well, or “for the love of music,” as the adage goes. Additionally, music is performed while being practised as a technique to improve musical abilities.

[edit] Solo and group

Strong solo or soloistic performance traditions exist in many cultures, such as those found in Western art music and Indian classical music. Group performance has a long heritage in some cultures, like Bali. Both types of performance are present in many cultures, and they can range from spontaneous solo playing done for personal delight to well planned and executed performance rituals like the modern classical concert or religious processions.

Compared to orchestral works, chamber music, which is music for a small ensemble with no more than one of each type of instrument, is frequently thought to be more personal. A musician or vocalist is a person who performs, and they can be a member of a musical group like a rock band or symphony orchestra.

Oral tradition and notation are edited

Music notation is the main topic.

Italic notation

Music is frequently passed down verbally or audibly, retained only in memory and performance (“by ear”). Music that has an unknown composer is frequently labelled as “traditional” music. Different musical traditions have different views on when and how to modify the original source material, ranging from those that are highly rigorous to others that call for improvisation or modifying the song. The history of the Gambia is transmitted orally through song in West Africa.

When music is recorded, it is typically notated, meaning there are instructions for both what the performer should do and what the audience should hear. This is known as musical notation, and learning how to read it entails studying harmony, performance practise, music theory, and, in some circumstances, previous performance styles.

With respect to music’s style and era, written notation differs. Scores, which contain all the musical parts of an ensemble piece, and parts, which are the musical notation for the individual performers or singers, are the two most popular forms of written notation in Western art music. The lead sheet, which includes the melody, chords, lyrics (if the work is a vocal piece), and structure of the music, is the accepted form of musical notation in popular music, jazz, and the blues. But scores and parts are also utilised in jazz and popular music, especially in huge groups like jazz “big bands.”

Guitarists and electric bassists frequently read tablature, which shows the positions of the notes to be played on the instrument using a diagram of the guitar or bass fingerboard, in popular music. The music for the lute, a stringed instrument with frets, was also notated using tabulature during the Baroque era.

Typically, sheet music is written for music that will be played. Understanding both the musical style and the performance conventions connected with a piece of music or genre is necessary to perform music from notation. Depending on the genre and time period, a different amount of information is explicitly given in the music notation. From the 17th through the 19th centuries, art music notation often required performers to have extensive contextual knowledge of various performing styles.

For instance, music notated for solo performers in the 17th and 18th centuries often denoted a straightforward, unadorned melody. However, it was anticipated that performers would be able to add ornaments, like trills and twists, that were appropriate for the particular style.

Art music for solo performers in the 19th century sometimes included basic instructions, such as to execute the music expressively, without going into specifics on how the performer should achieve this. To achieve this “expressive” performance style, it was anticipated that the performer would understand how to use tempo shifts, accentuation, and pauses (among other tools).

In the 20th century, art music notation frequently evolved into a more explicit style that included a variety of notes and markings to instruct performers on how to play or sing the piece. In jazz and popular music, the basic outline of the melody, harmony, or performance strategy is nearly always all that is indicated by the music notation; musicians and singers are expected to be familiar with the performance customs and techniques that are unique to particular genres and works.

For instance, a jazz song’s “lead sheet” might merely contain the melody and the chord progressions. Jazz ensemble artists are required to be able to “fill out” this fundamental structure with ornamentation, improvised music, and chordal support.

Editing: composition, interpretation, and improvisation

Articles in this section: Free improvisation, Musical composition, and

The idea of preconceiving musical material, or composition, as maintained in western classical music, is used in most civilizations to some extent. There are still a lot of judgements that a performer must make even when the music is meticulously notated. Interpretation describes the process through which a performer chooses how to execute previously composed and notated music.

The way that the same piece of music is interpreted by many artists might differ greatly. Just as performers of other people’s music or folk music interpret, so do composers and song writers who present their own music. Performance practise refers to the standard set of decisions and methods that are available at a given time and place, whereas interpretation is typically used to refer to either the performer’s own choices or an unclear component of the music that has a “standard” interpretation.

Even more latitude is provided to the artist to engage in improvisation on a fundamental melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic framework in some musical genres, such jazz and blues. In a performing technique known as free improvisation, the performer is given the most creative freedom because the material is “thought of” (created) while being performed rather than beforehand. According to Georgiana Costescu’s research, improvisational music frequently adheres to genre or artistic norms and even qualifies as “completely written” when it incorporates some freely chosen elements (see precompositional). Composition may not usually imply notation or the acknowledged original authorship of a single person.

By identifying a “process” that could produce musical sounds, such as wind chimes or computer systems that choose sounds, music can also be identified. Aleatoric music, which is defined as having elements chosen by chance, is frequently linked to John Cage and Witold Lutoslawski.

[edit] Structure

The word “musical composition” refers to the process of creating a piece of music. However, when examining music, all forms—spontaneous, trained, or untrained—are formed from the components of a musical piece. Composers’ methods vary greatly from one another. Music can be improvised, or created on the spot, or it can be composed for repeated performance. The music can be played fully by ear, entirely from written notation, or a combination of both. The study of composition has traditionally focused on exploring the principles and practises of Western classical music, but the term “composition” is broad enough to encompass pieces that are improvised on-the-fly, such as those by free jazz musicians and African drummers.

Identifying the components of a piece is crucial to comprehending its composition. Understanding the formal principles of music might help one figure out exactly how a composition is put together. The rhythm of a piece of music, or the order in which sounds are heard, is a fundamental aspect of music.

Rubato time, an Italian phrase meaning that the tempo alters to fit the performer’s expressive aim, is used to describe when a composition seems to have a shifting sense of time. Even the arbitrary placing of random sounds in a musical montage takes place within a certain amount of time, so time is used as a musical element.

[edit]’s observation of the welcome and audition

Article focus: Hearing (sense)

Performance at the Salzburg Mozarteum

The study of music cognition covers a wide range of topics, including how listeners interpret musical compositions.

People engage with music in a variety of social contexts, from being alone themselves to attending a sizable concert. In many cultural and social contexts, musical performances assume varied shapes. There is frequently a distinction made in Europe and North America between music genres considered to be of “high culture” and “low culture.” Western art music, such as symphonies, concertos, and solo works from the Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and contemporary eras, is frequently referred to as “high culture” music and is frequently performed in concert halls and cathedrals with the audience seated quietly.

The audience may be able to drink, dance, and express themselves by cheering, but other genres of music, like jazz, blues, soul, and country, are frequently presented in bars, nightclubs, and theatres. The divide between “high” and “low” musical forms was generally acknowledged up until the latter 20th century as a valid one that set apart better quality, more advanced “art music” from the popular genres of music heard in bars and dance halls.

However, musicologists who were examining this alleged gap between “high” and “low” musical genres in the 1980s and 1990s asserted that this division is not founded on the musical value or quality of the various genres of music. Instead, they contended that this differentiation was mostly dependent on the socioeconomic status or social class of the different forms of music’s performers or audience members. For more details gudang lagu